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If you are thinking about emigrating to Romania, you will certainly be interested in the culture, history and tradition of the country. From breathtaking landscapes to a diverse culture, Romania offers a unique experience for those seeking adventure.
Historical roots: Romania is a country that has been shaped by many different cultures and peoples. Its history dates back to ancient times and was shaped by the Romans, Slavs, Hungarians and other influences. Romanian culture is therefore a colorful mixture of traditions, customs and languages.
Gastronomy: Romanian cuisine is hearty and substantial. It includes a variety of dishes, including “Mămăligă” (corn porridge), “Sarmale” (stuffed cabbage wraps), “Mici” (grilled skinless sausages) and “Mămăligă cu brânză și smântână” (corn porridge with cheese and sour cream). The local cuisine is a delight for lovers of traditional dishes.
Festivals and holidays: Romanians like to celebrate and have a variety of festivals and holidays that reflect their culture and history. Orthodox Easter and Christmas are particularly significant celebrations. In addition, there are many regional festivals and events that celebrate folklore, music and dance.
Folklore and handicrafts: Romania is known for its rich folklore tradition, which is reflected in traditional music, dances, embroidery and skillfully crafted handicrafts. Each region has its own identity and specific craft techniques that have been passed down for generations.
Music and dance: Romanian music is passionate and emotional, with a variety of genres including folk, pop, rock and classical. Traditional dances include the “Hora” and the “Calusari,” which are often performed during celebrations and festivals.
Hospitality: Romanians are known for their warm hospitality. As an expatriate, you will quickly discover that the people of Romania are always willing to help you and welcome you into their community.
Natural Beauties: Romania is blessed with breathtaking landscapes, from the majestic Carpathian Mountains to the picturesque Danube Delta wetlands. Nature lovers will appreciate the many opportunities for hiking, climbing and exploring the unspoiled nature.
The climate in Romania can be divided into three main regions: continental climate in the inland areas, temperate climate in the coastal areas and subalpine climate in the mountainous regions.
Continental climate: In the interior of Romania, especially in the southern and eastern regions, there is a continental climate with distinct seasons. Summers are usually hot and dry, with average temperatures of 25°C to 30°C, with peaks of over 35°C possible. Winters are cold and snowy, with temperatures that often drop below freezing and can reach as low as -15°C. Spring and autumn are pleasant with mild temperatures.
Temperate climate: The coastal areas of the Black Sea have a temperate climate. Summers here are also warm, but somewhat milder than inland, with average temperatures ranging from 22°C to 28°C. Winters are usually milder here, with average lows between 0°C and 5°C. The amount of precipitation is higher in this region, especially in spring and autumn.
Subalpine climate: The mountainous regions of the Carpathians, which run through the center of the country, have a subalpine climate. Summers here are pleasantly cool with average temperatures ranging from 15°C to 20°C, providing welcome cooling during the warmer months. Winters are long and severe, with snowfalls from November to March and temperatures often below -10°C.
The majority of the Romanian population speaks Romanian. In urban areas and tourist centers, English as a foreign language is relatively widespread, especially among younger people and in the business world. Among the older population, English tends to be the less commonly spoken language. Other languages or dialects break down as follows:
Hungarian: Especially in parts of Transylvania, a region in the center of Romania, Hungarian is spoken by a significant Hungarian minority.
German: In some communities, mainly in Transylvania, German is spoken by the German minority. These communities are often referred to as “Transylvanian Saxons”.
Romani: The Roma minority in Romania speaks various dialects of Romani, an Indo-Aryan language.
Ukrainian, Serbian, Croatian and others: In some areas along the borders with other countries there are minorities speaking these languages.
Other minority languages: There are also smaller minorities speaking languages such as Bulgarian, Turkish, Tatar and others.
The Romanian educational system includes the following main levels:
Kindergarten (Grădiniță): Early childhood education in Romania begins in kindergarten, which is for children aged about 3 to 6 years. Kindergarten is optional, but widely available, and provides children with an initial structured learning experience as well as social interactions.
Elementary school (Școala Primară): Elementary school covers grades 1 to 4 and is compulsory. Here, students gain fundamental knowledge in subjects such as mathematics, language, science, art, and physical education.
Secondary School (Gimnaziu): The secondary school covers grades 5 to 8, where students are taught a broader range of subjects, while the emphasis is on developing critical thinking and analytical skills.
High School (Liceu): The high school includes grades 9 to 12 and offers different specializations according to the students’ interests and abilities. High school is also a prerequisite for college admission. Students choose between Realgymnasien (mathematical and scientific orientation), Humanistische Gymnasien (humanities orientation) and Technische Gymnasien (technical orientation).
Vocational schools (Școli Profesionale and Licee Tehnologice): In addition to regular high schools, there are vocational schools that focus on practical skills and professional qualifications. Here, students can complete technical or craft training.
Higher education: After graduating from high school, students can continue their studies at universities or technical colleges. The higher education system in Romania offers a wide range of degree programs in various disciplines.
It is important to note that the Romanian education system has undergone reforms over time to bring it in line with international standards and improve the quality of education. If you are thinking of emigrating to Romania and plan to send your child to school there, I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the current regulations and possibilities of the education system.
Homeschooling and online school
Homeschooling: In Romania, homeschooling is allowed under certain conditions. Parents who wish to homeschool their children must obtain written permission from the appropriate authorities. This process can be time-consuming and requires the submission of an educational plan and other documentation. Instructional materials must conform to national curricula, and periodic reviews and testing may be conducted by educational authorities to ensure that the student is receiving appropriate instruction.
Online school: Online schools, also known as distance learning or e-learning, are also available in Romania. Some schools offer online classes as an alternative to traditional face-to-face classes. However, these schools must be approved by education authorities and comply with national curricula. Online schooling can vary depending on the school and program.
It is important to note that both homeschooling and online schools must ensure compliance with educational regulations and quality standards. Romanian education authorities place great emphasis on ensuring that students receive an appropriate and quality education, whether they are home-schooled or attend an online school.
If you are interested in homeschooling or online schools in Romania, I recommend you contact the local education authorities to get detailed information about the requirements, procedures and opportunities.
The health care system in Romania has undergone changes over the years and is constantly evolving. There are both government and private healthcare facilities in the country. Here is some important information about the health care system in Romania:
State health care system: The state health care system in Romania provides basic medical care for the population. It is financed mainly through the National Health Insurance Fund (CNAS), which is financed by contributions from employees and employers. Insured persons are entitled to medical benefits, including medical examinations, hospitalization, prescription drugs and medical treatment.
Private healthcare facilities: There are also private hospitals, clinics and medical centers in Romania that offer fee-based services. Private facilities are often associated with more modern facilities and shorter wait times. Many residents and expatriates opt for private health care services for faster and more convenient care.
Differences in health care between natives and immigrants: In general, both natives and immigrants have access to the public health care system in Romania, provided they are properly insured. It should be noted, however, that some differences in the quality of care and services provided may exist between government and private facilities. Some immigrants, especially in urban areas, may be more likely to use private health care services to avoid potential communication barriers in the government system and possibly receive care more quickly.
Expatriates or immigrants moving to Romania are often advised to purchase private health insurance to ensure they have access to quality medical care and may be able to receive treatment more quickly. This can be especially important if the person is not fluent in Romanian and may have difficulty navigating the state health care system.
Vaccination and medical verification requirements for immigrants to Romania may vary depending on citizenship, purpose of stay, and length of stay. Here is some important information about it:
Vaccinations: Romania has certain vaccination recommendations and requirements that may apply to entry. For extended stay or immigration, certain vaccinations may be required to protect public health. Vaccinations against diseases such as tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, polio, hepatitis B and possibly other infectious diseases may be required. It is advisable to check with the Romanian embassy or consulate in your home country or with the appropriate immigration authorities for current vaccination requirements before entering the country.
Medical Evidence: Depending on the purpose of stay and duration of stay, medical evidence such as medical examinations or health certificates may be required. In some cases, such as when applying for a residence permit or work permit, health certificates could be required to ensure that the immigrant is in good health to live or work in the country.
For certain groups of people, such as students or migrant workers, health certificates such as x-rays or tuberculosis tests might also be required.
It is important to note that entry regulations and requirements are subject to change. Therefore, it is advisable to check with the official authorities and embassies of Romania in your home country for current vaccination and medical verification requirements before putting your immigration plans into action.
The tax system in Romania consists of different types of taxes levied on income, goods and services, property and other economic activities. Here are some of the main types of taxes and information about the tax system in Romania:
Income tax: Income tax in Romania is levied on both individuals (individual income tax) and legal entities (corporate income tax). Income tax rates can be progressive, with higher incomes paying higher rates.
Value Added Tax (VAT): VAT is a consumption tax levied on goods and services. The standard VAT rate in Romania is usually 19%, but there are also reduced rates for certain goods and services.
Social security contributions: Employers and employees pay social security contributions, which are used to finance the social security system. These levies cover benefits such as health insurance, pensions and unemployment benefits.
Capital gains tax: Gains from investments, such as dividends and capital gains, are subject to capital gains tax. Tax rates may vary depending on the type of investment income.
Real Estate Tax: Property owners, including residential and commercial properties, pay a real estate tax based on the value of the property.
Other taxes: There are other taxes such as property tax, motor vehicle tax, inheritance and gift tax, and various industry and excise taxes.
It is important to note that tax laws and regulations are subject to change. If you intend to live or conduct business activities in Romania, it is advisable to consult a tax advisor or a professional consulting service to obtain accurate and up-to-date information on the tax system and tax obligations applicable to your individual situation.
Romania’s economy is diverse and includes various sectors that contribute to the country’s overall economy. Here are some of Romania’s main economic sectors:
1. service sector: The service sector is a significant part of the Romanian economy. It includes sectors such as tourism, financial services, trade, transportation, education, healthcare and information technology. Romania has seen growth in the tourism sector in recent years, as the country offers a variety of historical sites, natural attractions and cultural sites.
Industrial sector: Industry plays an important role in Romania’s economy. Important industries include automotive manufacturing, mechanical engineering, electrical industry, textile industry, metal processing and chemical industry. Romania has established itself as an important location for foreign investment in industry, which has contributed to job creation and the development of export capacity.
3. agriculture and agribusiness: agriculture has a long tradition in Romania and is still an important economic sector. The country has fertile arable land and a variety of climatic zones that allow the cultivation of various agricultural products. Agriculture includes the cultivation of cereals, fruits, vegetables, wine, meat production and livestock.
4. construction and real estate: The construction and real estate sector has gained in importance in recent years. The infrastructure projects, housing construction and commercial real estate development contribute to the economic development of the country.
5. energy and mining: Romania has natural resources such as coal, oil and gas. Power generation is based on a mix of fossil fuels, renewables and nuclear energy.
It is important to note that Romania’s economy has undergone changes and challenges over time. Although the country has considerable growth potential, structural challenges and social inequalities are also present. Romania has sought to diversify its economy and invest in sectors such as technology and innovation to promote long-term sustainable growth.
Romania’s economy presents itself as resilient, although growth has lost some momentum. Romania’s economic growth is showing less momentum. Slight increases in real wages are helping to support private consumption. In addition, increased foreign direct investment is promoting growth.
Romania’s economic output will expand less dynamically in 2023 than in the previous year. Wage growth is slower, while high inflation is holding back private consumption. Compared with the strong previous year, export growth is expected to be weak.
In addition, high government debt is dampening GDP growth. However, Romania’s newfound strategic and political importance for European security is stimulating both public and private investment. As a result, UniCredit Bank has relatively positive expectations and forecasts real GDP growth of 2.9 percent for 2023 and 4.4 percent for 2024.
In terms of economic development, stable demand promises continued growth. However, due to increased food prices, domestic demand will grow more slowly in 2023. Consumers and investors have to spend a larger portion of their budgets on borrowing costs due to significantly higher interest rates. Nevertheless, private consumption remains an important pillar of GDP growth. To avoid inhibiting consumption, the government is capping energy costs until March 2025. However, prices for food and services continue to rise despite falling energy costs.
The recovery in the manufacturing sector remains sluggish and is not expected to contribute to growth. In this context, the construction sector promises to have a positive impact, as numerous EU-funded road construction projects have started since the end of 2022.
Job seekers sometimes find new employment opportunities in the steadily growing service sector. Workers are particularly in demand in retail, call centers and IT services. This strong demand for employees in the service sector is increasing pressure on the labor market.
With export demand gradually rising, the manufacturing sector is once again receiving more orders, which means that short-time working will probably no longer be necessary in 2023. The EU Commission expects the unemployment rate for the country as a whole to fall to 5.4 percent in 2023 and to 5.1 percent in 2024.
Since the prices change very strongly and also quickly due to the EU-wide rising inflation, we refer here to the website Cost of Living. On this website, the information is updated so that you are always up to date.
As of 8/23, it is very difficult to make an informed statement about the price development. Currently, there is talk of a real estate bubble that would affect very many countries within the EU. This remains to be seen. Next year at this time we will definitely know more about it
Real estate acquisition for foreign buyers
Romanian law allows foreigners to buy both residential and commercial real estate. However, there are some regulations and restrictions that must be observed:
Residential real estate: Foreigners can purchase residential real estate in Romania as long as it is not used for agricultural purposes or located in protected areas. There are no restrictions on the number of residential properties purchased, but it should be noted that land purchases by non-EU citizens may be subject to restrictions.
Commercial real estate: Foreigners can also purchase commercial real estate, such as office buildings or business premises, in Romania. Similar restrictions apply here as for residential properties, i.e. agricultural land or areas in protected areas are generally excluded.
It is important to note that buying real estate in Romania requires legal and contractual steps. It is recommended to consult a lawyer or a specialized real estate agency to ensure that the purchase process is carried out properly and that all necessary permits and documents are in place.
As everywhere else, it is certainly advisable to consult a professional who is familiar with the rights and customs of the country when purchasing real estate.
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Romania, with its growing economy and strategically favorable location in Southeastern Europe, is proving to be an attractive destination for start-ups, both domestic and foreign. However, establishing a business in Romania requires some steps and formalities. This article provides a comprehensive guide to starting a business in Romania, especially for foreign investors.
Market analysis and business idea: Before you begin the process of starting a business, it is advisable to conduct a thorough market analysis and develop a clear business idea. Identify the target audience, review the competition, and evaluate the market opportunity.
Legal form of the company: Romania offers various legal forms for companies, including sole proprietorships, limited liability companies (SRL) and joint stock companies (SA). Choosing the right legal form depends on several factors, such as liability limitations, number of founders and tax considerations.
Business address and commercial register: You need a business address in Romania to register your company. Entries in the Romanian Commercial Register are mandatory and can be made online or in person at the Commercial Registry Offices.
Tax registration: Your company must register with the Romanian tax office to obtain a tax number (CIF). The tax number is required to conduct business transactions and pay taxes.
Capital requirements: Capital requirements vary by legal form. When establishing an SRL, the minimum capital is 200 RON (Romanian Leu), while a higher minimum capital is required for an SA.
Permits and licenses: Depending on the type of business and industry, special permits or licenses may be required. Find out in advance about industry-specific requirements.
Labor and personnel: If you want to hire employees, you must comply with Romanian labor laws and regulations. Employment contracts and social security contributions are important aspects of personnel management.
Open a bank account: Open a business bank account in Romania to process business transactions and facilitate payments.
Tax obligations: Understand Romanian tax regulations, including VAT, income tax and social security contributions. Adhere to deadlines for filing tax returns and paying taxes.
Business growth and expansion: After the successful establishment of the company, you can develop and expand your business. This can include accessing financing, entering new markets, and launching new products or services.
When emigrating to Romania, different visa requirements apply for EU citizens and citizens outside the EU. Here is an overview:
EU citizens: Citizens of the European Union (EU) and the European Economic Area (EEA) have the right of free movement and can stay, live and work in Romania without a visa. You do not need a special entry visa for Romania. However, they must register their stay with the local authorities within a certain period of time after entering the country.
Citizens outside the EU: Citizens from countries outside the European Union usually need a visa to enter and live or work in Romania. The type of visa depends on the purpose of stay:
Tourist visa: If you are a citizen of a non-EU country and you want to travel to Romania to visit the country, you usually need to apply for a tourist visa. The duration of the visa varies according to the respective regulations.
Work Visa: If you want to work in Romania as a non-EU citizen, you usually need a work visa. This visa is usually issued in conjunction with a work permit.
Study visa: If you are a student from a non-EU country and you want to study in Romania, you need a study visa. This visa allows you to stay in the country for the duration of your studies.
Residence Visa: If you plan to live in Romania for a longer period of time, you may need a residence visa. The exact requirements depend on several factors, including your personal situation and the type of stay you plan.
It is important to note that visa requirements are subject to change and depend on various factors, such as the applicant’s nationality, purpose of stay, and applicable agreements between countries. Therefore, it is advisable to consult the official websites of the Romanian embassies or consulates in your home country to get accurate and up-to-date information about the visa requirements for Romania.
The security situation in Romania may vary depending on the region and current events. In general, Romania is considered a safe country, but it is important to consider certain aspects:
Crime: The crime rate in Romania is comparatively low, especially in tourist areas and larger cities. Still, as in any country, there are places where pickpocketing or minor offenses can occur. Travelers should keep an eye on their valuables and take precautions to avoid potential problems.
Demonstrations and riots: Demonstrations and protests are not uncommon in Romania, especially in larger cities. These may relate to political, social or economic matters. Most demonstrations are peaceful, but there may be isolated violent incidents or riots. It is advisable to avoid demonstrations and keep up to date with current news and travel warnings to avoid possible unrest.
To find out about the security situation on the ground, you can consult your government’s official travel advisories and local news sources. If you have concerns about your safety, it is recommended that you contact local authorities or your embassy.
In general, it can be said that Romania is largely safe for travelers and residents. With caution, common sense and an awareness of your surroundings, you can avoid most potential problems.