Emigrate to Poland

⇒ Poland culture

⇒ Climate

⇒ Language

⇒ School system of Spain

⇒ Health care system

⇒ Vaccinations and medical certificates

⇒ Tax system

⇒ Economy

⇒ Prices by index

⇒ Real estate

⇒ Company foundation

⇒ Visa

⇒ Safety

⇒ German agencies


Poland culture

If you are thinking about emigrating to Poland, a fascinating world rich in history, traditions and a vibrant culture will open up to you. Poland is known for its warm-hearted people, impressive architecture, culinary delights and unique traditions. Let’s dive into the culture of this fascinating country and learn what to expect when emigrating to Poland.

History and tradition
Poland looks back on an eventful history that has shaped many facets of European culture. From medieval castles to baroque churches and modern architecture, the country combines different architectural styles. Krakow and Warsaw are just two examples of cities that tell of their past and offer impressive historic city centers.

Polish culture is deeply rooted in traditions and customs. Festivals such as Christmas, Easter and Thanksgiving are celebrated with great enthusiasm. In the villages, old traditions often still have a high value, and folk festivals invite to dance, music and culinary delights. Traditional costumes and folklore play an important role in Polish identity and are often worn and presented on festive occasions.

Hospitality and community
Poles are known for their warm hospitality. As a foreigner, you will often receive a friendly welcome in Poland and the locals are willing to help you integrate. It is common when visiting a Polish home to be welcomed with open arms and treated to traditional food and drink. Friendships are often made here for life, and community cohesion is strong.

Culinary delights
Polish cuisine is rich and hearty. Pierogi (stuffed dumplings), bigos (sauerkraut stew) and kielbasa (Polish sausage) are just a few of the traditional dishes you must try. Food in Poland is often rustic and enhanced with a variety of spices and flavors. In addition, there is a wide selection of traditional baked goods such as Buchteln, Krapfen and apple pie that will tantalize your palate.

Art and culture
Poland has a rich artistic tradition and has produced some important artists, writers and musicians. The works of painters such as Jan Matejko and Stanisław Wyspiański have influenced the art world, while writers such as Adam Mickiewicz and Henryk Sienkiewicz have gained international recognition with their literary masterpieces. Music also plays an important role in Polish culture, and classical composers Frédéric Chopin and Krzysztof Penderecki have enriched the world of music.

Nature and leisure activities
Poland offers an impressive natural diversity. From the picturesque Tatra Mountains to the vast plains of the Masurian Lake District, there are countless opportunities to explore nature. Poland is also a paradise for outdoor activities such as hiking, skiing, biking and fishing. The numerous national parks and nature reserves invite you to discover and relax.

Die Landschaft von Polen


The climate in Poland is temperate and continental. There are significant differences between the seasons.

Spring in Poland is often mild, but still somewhat cool. Temperatures are slowly rising and the occasional rains are bringing nature back to life with green meadows and flowering trees.

In summer, average temperatures range between 20 and 25 degrees Celsius, but can easily exceed 30 degrees. Nights are usually cool and pleasant.

Autumn in Poland is often mild and colorful. Temperatures gradually begin to drop, and the forests turn into a spectacle of illuminating autumn colors. Autumn is also the time of harvest and traditional festivals that celebrate the end of summer.

Winters in Poland can be quite cold, especially in the eastern and northeastern parts of the country. Average temperatures are between -5 and 0 degrees Celsius, but can also be significantly lower. Snowfall is frequent, and the winter landscapes can be very picturesque. This is the time when winter sports like skiing and ice skating are popular.


The official language in Poland is Polish. Polish belongs to the West Slavic group of Slavic languages and is spoken as a native language by the vast majority of the Polish population.

However, as a tourist destination and due to the increasing internationalization of the country, English is also widely used as a foreign language in Poland. In larger cities, especially in tourist areas, many people speak English, especially younger generations and those who work in the tourism sector. In some areas of the country, especially in economically developed regions, German or Russian are also commonly used as foreign languages.

It should be noted, however, that Polish is the predominant language in everyday life, in stores, government offices and educational institutions. Therefore, it can be an advantage to acquire at least a basic knowledge of the Polish language in order to find one’s way in everyday life and to facilitate communication with the locals.

If you are seriously considering emigrating to Poland, it might be helpful to take a language course before emigrating, or at least familiarize yourself with the basics of the Polish language to better settle into your new environment and connect with people.

School system of Poland

School systems in Poland differ in their structure and orientation. The most important for you at a glance:

  1. Elementary School (Szkoła Podstawowa): Elementary school in Poland is a nine-year educational institution intended for children aged 6 to 15. It includes grades 1 through 9 and provides a general education. In the first three years of elementary school, the focus is on acquiring basic knowledge and skills in various subjects. In the higher grades, students are taught specific subjects such as math, history, languages, etc.
  2. Gymnasium (Gimnazjum): Gymnasium is a three-year type of school that follows elementary school. It is aimed at students between the ages of 13 and 16. The high school provides a secondary general education and prepares students for postsecondary education. The curriculum covers a wide range of subjects, including languages, mathematics, science, history, art and physical education.
  3. Secondary school (liceum): Secondary school, also known as liceum, is a three-year type of school that prepares students for the baccalaureate (matura). It is aimed at students between the ages of 16 and 19. The Liceum offers an in-depth general education and allows students to choose a specific focus, such as science, humanities, or art. The curriculum includes challenging subjects and prepares students for higher education.
  4. Vocational Schools (Szkoły Zawodowe): Vocational schools offer practice-oriented education in various vocational specialties. They are attended after graduation from elementary or high school and usually last two to three years. Vocational schools provide students with specific knowledge and skills that prepare them for careers.

In addition, Poland also has private schools, international schools and specialized schools for students with special needs. The education system in Poland is under the supervision of the Polish Ministry of Education and Science and is based on national curricula and standards.

In principle, homeschooling or online schooling is also allowed in Poland. However, both are subject to specific conditions which you can check with local education authorities.

Homeschooling: In Poland, homeschooling is possible as an alternative to attending a state or private school, but only to a limited extent. Parents must obtain written permission from the local board of education to homeschool their children. Permission is usually granted only in certain situations, such as serious illness or special needs of the child that make it difficult to attend school. Enforcement of homeschooling regulations can vary from region to region, as local education agencies have responsibility for approving and monitoring the homeschooling process.

Online school: In recent years, the importance of online schooling has increased in Poland. There are online platforms and virtual schools that offer courses and classroom content for students. These online schools allow students to pursue their education online from home. Online schooling can be an alternative option for families seeking more flexible learning opportunities or who have special circumstances that make it difficult to attend school locally.

Healthcare system

The health care system in Poland is largely state-funded and includes both public and private facilities. Here is some important information about the healthcare system in Poland:

  1. General health care: The Polish health care system is based on general health insurance administered by the National Health Insurance Fund (NFZ – Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia). All residents of Poland are required to pay into the health care system and are entitled to medical services.
  2. Medical care: The health care system in Poland offers a wide range of medical services, including preventive measures, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation. There are hospitals, clinics, health centers and doctors’ offices throughout the country that provide medical care. There are also specialized hospitals and clinics for specific medical areas such as oncology, cardiology or pediatrics.
  3. Health insurance: Most citizens are automatically insured in the National Health Insurance through their employer or as self-employed. Contributions to health insurance are usually deducted from the salaries or income of the insured. Individuals without health insurance must purchase private insurance or pay for their own medical expenses.
  4. Costs and co-payments: The Polish healthcare system provides for co-payments that patients must pay for certain medical services or medications. The amount of copayments varies depending on the type of service and the patient’s individual circumstances. Some groups, such as children, pregnant women and people with chronic conditions, may be exempt from certain co-payments.
  5. Private health care: In addition to public health care, there are also private medical facilities in Poland. Private health insurance is also available as a supplement to government insurance, providing additional benefits and faster access to certain medical services

It is important to note that the Polish healthcare system, like any other healthcare system, has its advantages and disadvantages. Wait times for certain medical procedures may be longer in some cases, while other services are readily accessible. It is recommended to have adequate health insurance and to find out the exact details of the health care system and individual insurance needs before emigrating to Poland.

Vaccinations and medical certificates

As an EU citizen emigrating to Poland, there are certain requirements related to vaccinations and medical certificates. Here is some important information about it:

  1. Vaccinations: There are no specific vaccination requirements for EU citizens entering Poland. There are usually no vaccinations required as a condition of entry or residence. However, it is recommended that you check that your standard vaccinations are up to date, especially tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox. In addition, certain vaccinations may be recommended depending on individual circumstances, such as hepatitis A and B, typhoid or rabies, depending on your travel plans and health status.
  2. Medical Evidence: There is no general requirement for EU citizens to present medical evidence when entering Poland. However, it is always advisable to carry a copy of your vaccination card and other relevant medical documentation, if applicable, especially if you require medical treatment or have certain medical conditions. These documents can be useful in providing relevant information to medical professionals in Poland when needed.

Tax system

The tax system in Poland is comprehensive and subject to Polish tax laws. Here is some important information about the tax system in Poland:

  1. Personal Income Tax (PIT): The income tax system in Poland is based on the principle of progressive income taxation. Tax rates vary depending on income levels and for 2021 are 17% for income up to a certain limit and 32% for income above. There is also an income limit below which no income tax has to be paid.
  2. Value Added Tax (VAT): Poland has a general value added tax, which is levied on the sale of goods and services. The general rate is 23%, but there are also reduced rates of 8% and 5% for certain goods and services such as food, books, medicines, etc.
  3. Corporate tax: Companies in Poland are subject to corporate income tax (CIT). The general tax rate for companies is 19%. However, there are reduced rates for small businesses and certain industries.
  4. Social security contributions: Employees and employers pay social security contributions in order to be entitled to social benefits such as pensions, health insurance and unemployment benefits. The contributions are deducted from the employee’s salary and paid by the employer. The exact contributions vary depending on income and type of employment.
  5. Capital gains tax: Gains from investments, such as interest income, dividends and capital gains, are subject to capital gains tax. The tax rate is usually 19%.
  6. Real estate tax: Poland also levies a real estate tax, which is paid by the owners of land and real estate. The exact tax rate and calculation methods may vary depending on the region and type of property.

It is important to note that the tax system in Poland can be complex and may change over time. It is recommended that you consult a tax advisor or professional for sound advice and to understand current tax laws and regulations, especially when dealing with specific financial or business matters.


The economy in Poland is a mix of different sectors that contribute to the country’s overall performance. Here are some important components of the Polish economy:

  1. Industry: Industry plays a significant role in the Polish economy. The main industries include mechanical engineering, automotive, metal processing, chemicals, electrical engineering, food processing and mining. Poland is known for its production capacities and exports in these sectors.
  2. Services sector: The services sector is an important component of the Polish economy. It includes various industries such as banking and financial services, insurance, retail, tourism, information technology, telecommunications, real estate and professional services. Warsaw, the capital of Poland, is a major financial center in the region.
  3. Agriculture: Agriculture plays an important role in Poland, especially in rural areas. Poland is known for its agricultural products such as cereals, fruits, vegetables, dairy products, meat and poultry. Agriculture helps supply the domestic market and also has a significant export component.
  4. Energy: Poland is rich in natural resources such as coal, natural gas and renewable energy. The energy industry encompasses the extraction, processing and utilization of these resources. In recent years, Poland has also invested more in renewInfrastructure: Infrastructure plays an important role in supporting the economy in Poland. The country has a well-developed transportation network, including roads, railways, ports and airports. Poland is an important transit corridor in Europe and has a strategic location between Western and Eastern Europe.
  5. Infrastructure: Infrastructure plays an important role in supporting the economy in Poland. The country has a well-developed transportation network, including roads, railways, ports and airports. Poland is an important transit corridor in Europe and has a strategic location between Western and Eastern Europe.

The Polish economy has experienced significant growth over the years. Poland is a member of the European Union and benefits from EU funding and trade relations. The Polish government has also taken measures to strengthen the country’s competitiveness and attract investment.


In general, the cost of living in Poland is lower compared to Germany. Prices for many goods and services can be cheaper in Poland. Here are some examples of price differences:

  1. Rents: Rental costs in Poland are lower on average than in Germany. Especially in smaller towns and rural areas, rental prices can be considerably cheaper.
  2. Food and restaurants: Prices for food and restaurants can be lower in Poland compared to Germany. Staple foods, fruits, vegetables and local produce are generally affordable. Eating out in restaurants and cafes can also be cheaper in Poland.
  3. Traffic and transportation: Prices for public transportation, gasoline and vehicle maintenance are generally lower than in Germany. The purchase price of cars can also be lower in Poland.
  4. Services: Services such as hairdressing, cosmetics or craftsman services can be cheaper in Poland than in Germany. Medical treatments and dental costs can also be comparatively lower.

However, it is important to note that prices may vary depending on the region in Poland. In larger cities such as Warsaw or Krakow, the cost of living can be higher than in rural areas. In addition, certain imported products or luxury goods may be more expensive in Poland than in Germany.

Da sich die Preise aufgrund der EU-weit steigenden Inflation sehr stark und auch schnell ändern, verweisen wir hier auf die Website Cost of Living. This website updates the information so that you are always up to date.

Warschau - Stadt mit reicher Wirtschaft in Polen

Real Estate

  1. Residential real estate: Residential real estate prices have risen in most regions of Poland. Especially in larger cities such as Warsaw, Krakow and Gdansk, prices for condominiums and houses tend to be higher than in more rural areas. This is due to economic development, population growth and increasing demand for housing.
  2. Rental properties: Rental prices for apartments and houses have also risen, especially in urban areas. Rising demand for rental housing, particularly in university towns, has led to an increase in rental costs. However, rental yields can vary depending on the location and type of property.
  3. Commercial real estate: The commercial real estate market in Poland has also developed positively. Due to economic growth and increasing investment, prices for office space, retail properties and industrial properties have increased in some regions.

Within the last 5 quarters, housing prices in Poland have increased extremely, the most of all EU countries, which have all experienced price increases. Expander calculated that in the comparison 2005 to 2020 the prices increased by 142%.

We will be happy to help you find an apartment or a house. Click here for our real estate listings.

Setting up a business in Poland: opportunities for EU citizens

Poland has become an attractive destination for start-ups in recent years. The country offers a thriving economy, growing domestic demand and a business-friendly environment. In particular, interesting opportunities are opening up for EU citizens who are thinking of emigrating to Poland and setting up a business. In this article we take a look at setting up a business in Poland and the specific aspects EU citizens should be aware of.

  1. Business plan: Create a detailed business plan that includes your business idea, market analysis, target audience and financial planning. A solid business plan is critical to convince investors or potential partners and lay the foundation for your success.
  2. Choose legal form: Decide on the appropriate legal form for your company. In Poland, you have several options, such as a sole proprietorship (jednoosobowa działalność gospodarcza), a partnership (spółka cywilna), a limited liability company (spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością) or a joint stock company (spółka akcyjna).
  3. Company name and registration: Choose a unique company name and register your company with the relevant registry court (Krajowy Rejestr Sądowy). Registration includes submission of required documents, such as proof of identity, articles of incorporation and other required documents.
  4. Tax registration: Register your business with the tax office and apply for a tax identification number (NIP) and, if applicable, a value added tax (VAT) identification number.
  5. Open a bank account: Open a business bank account at a bank in Poland. A bank account is required to conduct business transactions.
  6. Permits and licenses: make sure you obtain all necessary permits and licenses for your business. Specific requirements may apply depending on the industry and field of activity.

Setting up a business for EU citizens

As an EU citizen, you have the right to establish a company in Poland and do business there. As a rule, the incorporation procedures are not more complicated for EU citizens than for Polish citizens. Here are some important aspects EU citizens should consider when starting a business in Poland:

  1. Residence and work permit: EU citizens usually do not need a special residence or work permit to establish or operate a business in Poland. You can freely stay and work in Poland.
  2. Registration with the registry court: EU citizens can register with the registry court in person or through an authorized representative. When registering, certified translations of some documents in Polish may be required.
  3. Tax matters: EU citizens must register with the tax office and obtain a tax number. There may also be certain tax obligations relating to income tax, value added tax and social security contributions. It is recommended to consult a tax advisor or professional to understand and comply with tax obligations.
  4. Language and culture: Although English is widely spoken as a foreign language in Poland, it can be beneficial to have a basic knowledge of Polish. This facilitates business communication and understanding of the local business culture.

Due to membership in the European Union, no visa is required.

As a German citizen, even if you are not gainfully employed, you have the right to live in any EU country. This also applies if you want to live off your pension or savings.

You log off in Germany and log on in Poland. You will be issued an appropriate certificate with which you can also open a bank account.

Security in the country

Poland is generally considered a safe country, but as in any country, there are certain aspects regarding crime, demonstrations and riots that should be taken into account. Here is some information on these topics:

  1. Crime: The crime rate in Poland is relatively low by European standards. People can move around safely in most parts of the country. However, as in all countries, there are isolated incidents of theft, pickpocketing or fraud, especially in tourist areas and crowded places. It is advisable to take normal safety precautions, such as keeping valuables safe, using public transportation, and paying attention to your personal safety.
  2. Demonstrations: Demonstrations and protests occur in Poland, especially on political and social issues. As a rule, these proceed peacefully and without violence. It is recommended to avoid demonstrations and stay informed about current events and possible road closures or traffic disruptions. It is also important to stay away from crowds to avoid potential conflicts.
  3. Riots: While Poland is generally considered safe, there have been isolated riots in the past, particularly in connection with political or soccer events. It is important to be aware of potentially dangerous situations or events and to avoid crowds to ensure your personal safety.
German representations in Poland


Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany Warsaw
ul. Jazdów 12
00-467 Warszawa
Phone: +48 22 584 17 00
Website: www.warschau.diplo.de


Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Wroclaw
ul. Podwale 76
50-449 Wrocław
Phone: +48 71 377 27 00


Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Germany Gdansk
Al. Zwycięstwa 23
80-219 Gdańsk
Phone: + 48 58 340 65 00


Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Germany Krakow
ul. Stolarska 7
31-043 Kraków
Website: www.krakau.diplo.de
Phone: +48 12 424 30 00

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