Emigrate to Turkey

⇒ Turkey culture

⇒ Climate

⇒ Language

⇒ Turkey school system

⇒ Health care system

⇒ Vaccinations and medical certificates

⇒ Tax system

⇒ Economy

⇒ Prices by index

⇒ Real estate

⇒ Company foundation

⇒ Visa

⇒ Safety

⇒ BACK TO OVERVIEW ⇐

Turkey culture

Turkey’s culture is diverse and rich, marked by a rich history, a blend of diverse influences and a vibrant folk culture. Here are some characteristics that distinguish the culture of Turkey:

  1. Historical heritage: Turkey has a long history dating back to ancient times. The country has been an important setting for various civilizations and has numerous historical sites such as ancient Ephesus, Troy, historic Istanbul and much more.
  2. Cultural diversity: Turkey is a melting pot of different cultures, as the country forms a bridge between Europe and Asia. There are influences from the Ottoman Empire, Byzantine culture, Greek culture and other cultures.
  3. Hospitality: Turkish culture is known for its hospitality. People in Turkey are warm and hospitable and like to welcome visitors with open arms.
  4. Food and drink: Turkish cuisine is famous for its diversity and variety of flavors. Popular dishes include doner kebab, baklava, lahmacun, Turkish tea and much more. Food has an important place in Turkish culture, and meals are often seen as social events where family and friends come together.
  5. Traditional Art and Music: Turkey has a rich tradition in the fields of art and music. The country is known for its carpet weaving, ceramics, calligraphy, miniature painting and other traditional crafts. Turkish music includes various genres such as Turkish folk music, classical Turkish music and modern pop music.
  6. Religious diversity: Turkey is a secular state in which various religions and beliefs are represented. Islam is the predominant religion, but there are also Christian, Jewish and other religious communities in Turkey.
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Climate

The climate in Turkey is very different due to the geographical location and the diversity of the terrain. Overall, however, it can be said that Turkey has a temperate climate with some regional variations. Here are the general climatic zones and their characteristics:

  1. Mediterranean Coast: The coastal regions along the Mediterranean Sea, including the Aegean and South coasts, have a Mediterranean climate. Summers are hot and dry, while winters are mild and humid. Average temperatures in summer are usually between 25 °C and 35 °C, while in winter they are between 10 °C and 15 °C.
  2. Black Sea Coast: The Black Sea Coast in the northern part of Turkey has a humid, temperate climate. The summers are mild and the winters cool to cold. Rainfall here is high throughout the year, especially in spring and autumn.
  3. Central Anatolia: The Central Anatolia region has a continental climate with hot, dry summers and cold winters. Temperatures can rise above 35 °C in summer and fall below freezing in winter. Precipitation is limited and occurs mainly in spring and autumn.
  4. Eastern Anatolia: Eastern Anatolia is known for its harsh, continental climate. Winters are long, very cold and snowy, while summers are short and cool. Temperatures can fall below -10 °C in winter.
  5. Southeast Anatolia: This region has a dry, hot desert climate. Summers are extremely hot with temperatures over 40 °C, while winters are mild. Precipitation is rare and irregular.

Language

In Turkey, Turkish is mainly spoken as the official language. Turkish is the mother tongue of the majority of the population and serves as the lingua franca in the country. However, there are also a variety of other languages spoken by minority groups in Turkey. These include:

  1. Kurdish: Kurdish is the second largest language in Turkey and is spoken by a significant Kurdish population. There are several dialects of Kurdish, including Kurmanci, Sorani, Zazaki and others.
  2. Arabic: Due to historical and cultural ties, there are Arabic speakers in some regions of Turkey, especially in the southeast of the country.
  3. Zaza: Zaza is an Indo-Iranian language spoken by the Zaza people, who live mainly in the eastern regions of Turkey.
  4. Armenian: Armenian is spoken by the Armenian community in Turkey. The Armenian language has a long history in Turkey, especially in Istanbul and some eastern Turkish cities.
  5. Greek: Greek is spoken by the Greek minority in Turkey. The Greek language also has a long history in Turkey, especially in Istanbul and some western Turkish cities.

In addition, there are other languages spoken by minority groups or immigrants in Turkey, including Albanian, Bosnian, Georgian and many others. Turkey is a multicultural country with a rich linguistic diversity.

Turkey school system

For emigrating to Turkey with the family, the school system obviously plays a big role:

The school system in Turkey consists of three main levels: Elementary School, Secondary School and Secondary School.

Elementary school (İlkokul) covers four years and is intended for children aged 6 to 10. Education in elementary school is compulsory and free of charge. In this level, basic knowledge is taught in the subjects of mathematics, Turkish, natural sciences, social sciences, art and music.

Secondary school (Ortaokul) usually lasts four years and is for students aged 11 to 14. The curriculum includes subjects such as mathematics, Turkish, natural sciences, social sciences, foreign languages, sports and religion or ethics.

Secondary school (Lise) is another four-year level that students attend between the ages of 15 and 18. There are different types of secondary schools, including general secondary schools, specialized secondary schools and vocational schools. Students can choose a specific field of study, such as natural sciences, social sciences, languages or technology, depending on their interests and abilities.

After completing secondary school, students can take a college admissions exam to study at a university or college.

Healthcare system

The health care system in Turkey is referred to as the “Health Insurance System of Turkey” and is based on the principle of compulsory health insurance. The system includes both government and private health care facilities.

Public health facilities in Turkey include public hospitals, polyclinics, health centers, and community health centers. These facilities provide a wide range of medical services, including medical examinations, diagnosis, treatment, surgery and emergency care. Government facilities are generally inexpensive and provide medical care for the general population.

There are also private hospitals and clinics in Turkey that provide quality medical care for a fee. Many private facilities are equipped with state-of-the-art medical technology and offer a wide range of medical specialties and specializations.

The Turkish government has made significant efforts in recent years to improve the health care system and facilitate access to quality health care. Health insurance is mandatory for all Turkish citizens, and foreigners living legally in Turkey can also benefit from health insurance.

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Vaccinations and medical certificates

For emigration to Turkey as a German, vaccinations and medical certificates are recommended.

In general, the Turkish Ministry of Health recommends that travelers have certain standard immunizations, such as vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), polio and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR). In addition, depending on the destination and duration of the trip, further vaccinations may be recommended, e.g. against hepatitis A and B, typhoid or rabies.

Medical evidence may also be required at the time of entry, especially if there are certain medical conditions that could affect entry or residency. In such cases, it is advisable to contact the Turkish authorities or the Turkish embassy or consulate in Germany before traveling to clarify the exact requirements.

Tax system

The tax system in Turkey comprises various types of taxes levied on different sources of income and wealth. Here are some important points about the tax system in Turkey:

  1. Income tax: Income tax in Turkey is levied on both individuals and legal entities. Income tax rates vary according to income level and tax bracket.
  2. Corporate income tax: Legal entities, including companies, are subject to corporate income tax. The general corporate income tax rate is currently 22%. There are also lower tax rates for small and medium-sized enterprises.
  3. Value Added Tax (VAT): Value added tax is an indirect consumption tax levied on the sale of goods and services. The general VAT rate is currently 18%, but there are also reduced rates for certain goods and services.
  4. Social security contributions: Employees and employers in Turkey pay social security contributions, which are used to finance the social security system. Contribution rates vary depending on the type of income.
  5. Property tax: Property tax is levied on the value of real estate. The tax rate varies depending on the location and use of the property.

Tax tricks

There are legal ways to save taxes in Turkey. Here are some common tax saving strategies that can be used in Turkey:

  1. Tax incentives for specific industries: The Turkish government offers special tax incentives for certain industries and regions. These include, for example, tax breaks for investments in the export, tourism, technology and renewable energy sectors.
  2. Use of tax breaks and deductions: It is important to take advantage of the various tax breaks and deductions offered by the Turkish tax system. These include, for example, deductions for certain expenses such as education, health care costs, donations and pension contributions. Proper documentation and submission of tax receipts is required to take advantage of these benefits.
  3. Optimize corporate structures: By carefully planning corporate structures and profit distribution, companies in Turkey can optimize their tax burden. This may include the establishment of subsidiaries, the use of holding structures, or the use of double taxation treaties.
  4. Real Estate Investments: Certain tax benefits are available for real estate investments in Turkey. These include, for example, reduced tax rates for the purchase of new construction properties or tax exemptions for long-term real estate investments.

Economy

The economy in Turkey is diverse and is one of the largest economies in the world. It is supported by various sectors such as industry, services, agriculture and tourism. Here are some characteristics of the Turkish economy:

  1. Industry: Turkey has a diverse industrial base covering various sectors, including automotive, textiles and apparel, electronics, machinery, chemicals and construction. The industry plays an important role in creating jobs and exporting products.
  2. Services: The services sector is an important component of the Turkish economy and contributes significantly to gross domestic product (GDP). Sectors such as tourism, financial services, trade, transportation and communications play a significant role in the country’s economic development.
  3. Agriculture: Agriculture plays an important role in some regions of Turkey, especially in rural areas. The main agricultural products include cereals, fruits, vegetables, olive oil and livestock. Agriculture provides employment opportunities and contributes to the country’s food security.
  4. Foreign trade: Turkey has a strong presence in international trade. The country exports a wide range of products, including textiles, vehicles, electronics, agricultural products and jewelry. Major trading partners include the European Union, the United States and countries in the Middle East.
  5. Investments: Turkey has made significant investments in infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges, airports, and power generation in recent years. This has helped to improve the business environment and attract foreign investors.
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Prices by index

Even in an economy as diverse as Turkey’s, prices can change quickly and vary greatly from region to region, so please refer to the Cost of Living website. The information on this website is constantly updated so that you are always up to date.

Real Estate

As an immigrant, it is possible to buy or rent real estate in Turkey. Turkish legislation allows foreigners to purchase real estate, both residential and commercial, under certain conditions.

For the purchase of real estate, foreigners must obtain permission from the Turkish authorities, in particular from the military authorities. This approval is generally formal in nature and is usually granted unless there are safety concerns.

However, there are some restrictions on purchasing real estate in certain regions such as military sensitive areas, coastal areas or near the border. There are also restrictions on the acquisition of agricultural land.

Company foundation

As an immigrant, it is possible to start a business in Turkey. Turkish legislation allows foreigners to establish a company and conduct business in various industries.

In order to establish a company in Turkey, certain steps and formalities must be followed, including registering the company with the Commercial Registry Office, obtaining a tax number, and meeting legal requirements such as minimum capital requirements and appointing a managing director.

Company forms

As an immigrant in Turkey, you have several options to start a business. Here are some of the most common types of businesses:

  1. Sole proprietorship (Tek Kişilik Şirket): This is the simplest form of company formation and allows you to operate a business in your own name. They are personally liable for the debts and obligations of the company.
  2. Limited Şirket Company: A Limited Şirket is a popular choice for business startups in Turkey. It provides limited liability, which means that your personal assets are not liable for the company’s liabilities. It is required to have at least one Turkish citizen as a shareholder.
  3. Joint Stock Company (Anonim Şirket): A joint stock company is a corporation whose capital is divided into shares. It requires at least five founding shareholders and a minimum capital. A corporation also provides limited liability for shareholders.
  4. Limited partnership (Komandit Şirket): A limited partnership consists of general partners (partners with unlimited liability) and limited partners (partners with limited liability). The general partners are personally liable, while the limited partners’ liability is limited to their contribution.

There are also other specialized forms of business and regulations for specific industries or activities.

Visa

For emigrating to Turkey as a German, there are several visa options. The appropriate visa category depends on several factors, such as the purpose of the stay, the planned duration of the stay and the type of activity in Turkey. Here are some of the most common visa categories:

  1. Tourist Visa: Tourist visa allows temporary stay for tourist purposes, such as vacation or visiting friends and family. It is usually valid for a limited time, for example 90 days within a 180-day period.
  2. Residence Visa: The residence visa is intended for people who want to live in Turkey for a longer period of time. There are several subcategories of residence visas, such as the family reunification visa for spouses or children of Turkish nationals, the education visa for students, or the work visa for employees.
  3. Investor Visa: The Investor Visa is for people who want to invest in Turkey by, for example, starting a business, buying real estate or other economic activities. The exact conditions for the investor visa can be determined by the Turkish authorities.
  4. Work Visa: If you want to work in Turkey, you need to apply for a work visa. This usually requires an employment contract with a Turkish company acting as employer and the approval of the Turkish Ministry of Labor.
Security in the country

The security situation in Turkey may vary depending on the region and current events. In recent years, there have been security concerns in some parts of the country due to political tensions, terrorism, and occasional protests. There may be security risks, particularly in the border regions and in certain areas in the southeast of the country.

It is important to review and heed current travel advisories and safety warnings from government agencies, such as the State Department. We refer here to the security advice of the Foreign Office: Security advice Turkey.

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